In this series I will be looking at each of the individual nations of Faerûn in turn, in alphabetical order. This series is based around the status of each nation as of 1371-72 Dalereckoning (at the end of D&D 2nd Edition and the start of 3rd Edition). The maps are drawn from The Forgotten Realms Interactive Atlas CD-ROM and their respective 1st and 2nd Edition sources. They are not necessarily current for the 5th Edition of the setting (which is set c. 1496 DR), as borders have changed and some towns and cities have fallen, whilst newer ones have risen.
- Ruler: The Lords of Waterdeep, represented by Open Lord Piergeiron Paladinson
- Capital: Waterdeep (pop. 132,661)
- Settlements: Amphail (600), Rassalantar (200), Tharqualnaar (517), T’Quession (240), Zundbridge
- Population: 1,347,840 (64% human, 10% dwarf, 10% elf, 5% halfling, 5% half-elf, 3% gnome, 2% half-orc, 1% misc.)
- Population Density: 21 people per mile² (8.41 people per square km²)
- Area: 61,853 miles² (160,198.53 km²) – very approximate area of influence
- Military: The City Guard (inc. the Griffon Legion), the City Watch, Force Grey, various mercenary and adventuring companies, the clergy of Tempus, a formidable number of resident powerful mages and clerics
- Languages: Common, Chondathan, Dwarven, Elven, Gnome, Halfling, Illuskan
- Religion: Baravar Cloakshadow, Deneir, Gond, Lathander, Mielikki, Mystra, Oghma, Selûne, Sharess, Siamorphe, Silvanus, Sune, Tempus, Tymora, Tyr
- Exports: Ale, arms, cloth, fish, furnishings, leather goods, pottery, refined metals, finished goods
- Imports: Grain, livestock, leather, ore, timber, exotic goods from other lands
- Sources: Waterdeep and the North (Ed Greenwood, 1987), The Savage Frontier (Jennell Jaquays, 1988), City System (Jeff Grubb, Ed Greenwood, 1988), Eye of the Beholder (video game, Westwood Studios, 1991), Eye of the Beholder II: The Legend of Darkmoon (video game, Westwood Studios, 1992), City of Splendors (Steven E. Schend, Ed Greenwood, 1994), Volo’s Guide to Waterdeep (Ed Greenwood, 1994), The North (slade, Ed Greenwood, Jeff Grubb, Julia Martin, Steven E. Schend, Jennell Jaquays, Steve Perrin, 1996), City of Splendors: Waterdeep (Eric L. Boyd, 2005), Environs of Waterdeep (Eric L. Boyd, 2006)
Waterdeep, the Crown of the North or, more famously, the City of Splendours, is the largest and grandest city-state on the north-western coast of Faerûn. Located at the meeting point of the Trackless Sea and the Sea of Swords, at the far southern end of the Sword Coast North (or the far northern end of the Sword Coast proper; cartographic blood has been spilt in the debate), where the North meets the Western Heartlands, the city is superbly placed for trade, defence, political influence and supply. The city also projects immense and unrivalled soft power over much of the north-western quarter of the continent.
Waterdeep lays no formal political claim to any land beyond its walls, but in practice the forty miles or so immediately surrounding the city is covered in farmland dedicated to feeding the city and supplying it with raw materials. The land for a further sixty miles beyond that is regularly patrolled by Waterdeep’s militia and aerial cavalry. The hamlet of Rassalantar and the larger village of Amphail are both defended by Waterdeep’s military and their economies depend on trade with the larger city, although they remain autonomous in terms of their civil governance. Waterdeep also maintains a garrison at Zundbridge to defend the mouth of the Dessarin from pirates and raiders. As many people live within Waterdeep’s sphere of protection as do in the entire kingdom of Cormyr.
Waterdeep is also the de facto head of the Lords’ Alliance, a formidable military, political and economic bloc dominating western Faerûn and acting as a bulwark to the ambitions of groups such as the Black Network of the Zhentarim, the Red Wizards of Thay and the Cult of the Dragon. Other members of the Alliance include Silverymoon, Baldur’s Gate, Neverwinter, Amphail, Berdusk, Elturel, Goldenfields, Gundarlun, Iriaebor, Leilon, Longsaddle, Mirabar and Sundabar. The founding of the kingdom of Luruar in 1369 brought the entire Silver Marches into the Alliance as well, including Everlund, Citadels Felbarr and Adbar, and Mithral Hall. Several nearby towns are not formal members of the Alliance, but had friendly ties to it, including the towns of Secomber and Yartar, the elves of Evereska, the kingdom of Cormyr and the island kingdom of Moonshae.
Waterdeep itself is an impressive sight, with the city located on the flanks of the mountain of the same name, rearing over the ocean. The city extends for around two miles along its longest axis and is surrounded by stout walls, not to mention the sheer cliffs and escarpments of the landward side of the mountain. The mountain forms the western boundary of the city, acting as something of a windbreak against the worst storms rolling in off the Trackless Sea. Deepwater Isle performs much the same task to the south. Castle Waterdeep, the centre of governance, is located on the south-eastern edge of the mountain, whilst the mountain peak is the home of the city’s griffons.
The city is divided into six districts: Sea Ward, North Ward, Castle Ward, Trades Ward, South Ward and Dock Ward. A seventh subdivision is applied to the City of the Dead, the city cemetery, which also doubles as a park and place of reflection. Deepwater Isle is sometimes named as an eighth subdivision, although it is reserved for military use. The floor of Deepwater Harbour is also home to a merfolk village (Tharqualnaar) and a sea elf settlement (T’Quession), both of which are formally allied to Waterdeep and help keep the harbour clear of aquatic threats.
Waterdeep is home to over 132,000 permanent residents and during the height of the trade season the population can swell immensely with an influx of merchants and visitors. During such times tent towns form beyond the city’s gates to provide additional accommodation. Requests to expand the city beyond the walls have so far been denied by the Lords for security reasons, although it is becoming something of a necessity to deal with the population increase.
Waterdeep has a legendary reputation for wealth, fairness and equality. The city goes to immense lengths to keep crime to a minimum, if not eliminated altogether. However, it is something of an open secret that the subterranean city of Skullport lies below Waterdeep, and is where the region’s criminal activity is centred. Fortunately, the scoundrels of Skullport spend so much time bickering and scheming against one another that their ability to hurt the people of Waterdeep proper is limited. Some believe a more organised thieves’ guild does exist both in and under Waterdeep, headed by a beholder named Xanathar (despite near-annual rumours of the beholder’s death), but this is unconfirmed, and may just be a rumour.
More disturbing is the colossal dungeon which lies below the city. Undermountain, the largest known dungeon in Faerûn, extends for many levels and thousands of feet into the Underdark below the city. The dungeon is the playground of the so-called Mad Mage, Halaster Blackcloak, but he mostly keeps his crazed interests to himself. The upper levels of Undermountain are considered safe enough for adventurers to explore without too much concern (the main entrance is even located in a popular bar, the Yawning Portal), but the lower levels are considered extremely lethal. The status of Undermountain is monitored by various worthies, including the city’s famed archmage, Khelben Arunsun, the Blackstaff, but far from putting off visitors and migrants, the dungeon seems to attract them.
The site where Waterdeep stands today was, of old, part of the great elven realm of Illefarn. Founded in 22,900 BDR (Before Dalereckoning), Illefarn extended down the far north-western coast of Faerûn, including the then-forested flanks of the single mountain in the area. In 17,600 BDR, the Sundering took place and the modern coastline was formed. Illefarn was plunged into the Crown Wars (12,000 – 9000 BDR) which afflicted the six Great Elven Empires, resulting in the destruction of four of them (Aryvandaar, Miyeritar, Shantel Othreier and Ilythiir). Only Illefarn and Keltormir far to the south (in the forests of Tethir and Mir) survived.
Illefarn suffered severely during the Crown Wars, being defeated by its eastern neighbour of Aryvandaar and undergoing occupation. After the end of the Crown Wars, Illefarn underwent a renaissance of power. This led to the decision to found a new capital city, Aelinthaldaar, in 8500 BDR. Aelinthaldaar grew to impressive size and became surrounded by a mythal, which encompassed the entire mountain and city around it, preventing the mountainous plateau from collapsing despite mining activities below the surface.
In 1288 BDR, a shield dwarf explorer and prospector named Melair visited Aelinthaldaar and petitioned the Coronal to be allowed to explore the area under the mountain for rare minerals. The Coronal agreed and Melair discovered significant deposits of mithral. The elves and dwarves came to an agreement for the dwarves to mine the mountain and the elves would sell their goods on. The mountain became known as Mount Melairbode and within a few centuries was all but hollowed out, as the dwarves of Clan Melairkyn mined out substantial quantities of mithral and other metals.
In 1100 BDR the Coronal called the Great Retreat, ordering all the citizens of Aelinthaldaar to leave the city for Evermeet. In an impressive feat of High Magic, the city was apparently dissolved into nothing, leaving behind no trace it had ever existed. The dwarves were left to mine the mountain alone. The elves did leave the mythal intact, however, lest the dwarves’ delving cause the entire plateau to collapse.
The capital was abandoned and Illefarn effectively dissolved, although some nearby elven sub-kingdoms decided not to follow the call and remained behind. Most notable were Ardeep, Iliyanbruen and Rilithar. Remarkably, the remaining elves and dwarves in the region would later (around 342 DR) ally and found a new or successor kingdom also called Illefarn, which would encompass later realms such as Phalorm.
Around 1088 BDR, the first humans settled the area, with formerly nomadic tribes settling the bay. The fortunes of these tribes would wax and wane considerably, with them sometimes establishing fairly significant towns only for them to be swept away by an orc horde or civil war and the area left uninhabited for years or decades before a new settlement was established.
Around 800 BDR, the Netherese established an outpost in Mount Melairbode with the permission of the dwarves (as part of Netheril’s alliance with both Illefarn and Delzoun, the greater Shield Kingdom of the North). Sargauth Enclave was used as a base of operations for magical experimentation in the safety of the underground vaults. When Netheril collapsed in 339 BDR, the resulting chaos in the Weave resulted in Sargauth’s supporting pillars failing and the underground city being destroyed. The thirteen most powerful mages of the enclave survived, after a fashion, as their skulls were converted into magical, free-floating entities, later called the Skulls of Skullport.
In 34 DR, a combined army of drow and duergar invaded Mount Melairbode and routed the dwarves, forcing them into the deeper levels. By 211 DR the dwarves had been forced out of the mountain altogether, and the drow claimed ownership of the dwarf-halls instead, which they named Kyorlamshin.
In 168 DR, the mysterious and ancient mage known as Halaster arrived at the foot of Mount Melairbode and founded a holdfast. Using the holdfast as a base, he struck into the mountain to explore its secrets. The drow grew annoyed by his intrusions and tried to kill or enslave him, but failed miserably; Halaster’s magic was far too powerful and soon all the drow of Kyorlamshin were dead, mad or ensorcerelled puppets of the mage.
By 307, Halaster had effectively moved into the mountain and abandoned his holdfast, which fell into ruin (today the Yawning Portal Inn stands on its site). As he explored further into the dungeon, he populated the levels with various monsters to study them in this unusual habitat. He eventually disappeared into the lowest levels of the mountain, reappearing usually only to deal with intruders or those who vexed him, such as the Guild of Naturalists of the elven empire of Cormanthyr, who started investigating the dungeon themselves in 658, stealing monsters away to study them. Halaster retaliated by kidnapping elf-mages to experiment on. When the Guild stopped invading his territory, Halaster ceased retaliating. The elves may have taken stronger action to recover their missing mages, but this was precluded by the destruction of Cormanthyr and its capital, Myth Drannor, in 714.
In 472, Ulbaerag Bloodhand united the human tribes in the vicinity of Mount Melairbode and founded a primitive castle overlooking the harbour, with the first proper palisades built around it. This expanded into a small village. In 882 Nimoar the Reaver then invaded the area, capturing the castle and village, which he renamed Nimoar’s Hold. The Hold resisted several attacks by orcs, rival tribes and pirates and expanded, with the first stone buildings being erected. The mountain had become known as Mount Waterdeep and the bay as Deepwater Harbour. “Waterdeep” became an established nickname for the Hold by the early 10th Century.
In 932 the First Trollwar saw vast numbers of trolls spread down the Dessarin River Valley from the Evermoors, bringing death and destruction in their wake. Nimoar led a retaliatory strike which seemingly eliminated the threat. However, the Second Trollwar (940-952) proved much more devastating and displaced thousands of refugees down the Dessarin, many of them settling in Nimoar’s Hold. They were followed by the powerful wizard Ahghairon of Silverymoon, who settled in the Hold in 952 and was soon named the first Archmage of the town.
Under Ahghairon’s guidance, the town fortified Deepwater Isle and accepted the founding of a temple to Lathander, which brought many worshippers of the Morninglord to the nascent city. By 1010 the city had constructed its first stone walls and exceeded Silverymoon in size. It was formally renamed Waterdeep by this point, with Lauroun as its first Warlord and Ahghairon as the first Archmage.
Lauroun died in combat with the Black Claw orc tribe in 1026 and her deputy, Raurlor, became Warlord. In 1032 Raurlor decreed the founding of the “Empire of the North,” and ordered Waterdeep’s army to prepare for a war of conquest. Instead, Raurlor was summarily executed by Ahghairon, who took over direct governance. Ahghairon proclaimed that wisdom, temperance and reason would rule Waterdeep, not aggression and greed. Ahghairon then created a council known as the Lords of Waterdeep to help him rule, with the other Lords’ identities kept completely secret.
In 1235, the city withstood siege for several months as the Black Horde of orcs overran much of northern Faerûn. The orcs were unable to breach the walls and the city remained resupplied by sea and magical means. The orcs eventually fled before they starved themselves. During the siege, the city’s defenders tamed the griffons of the mountain and used them for reconnaissance, leading to the formal establishing of the city’s Griffon Cavalry.
In 1246, the wizard Kerrigan, a masked Lord of Waterdeep, tried to seize control of the city. He was defeated by Ahghairon. In 1248 the Guilds of Waterdeep were founded to regulate trade in the city.
Waterdeep expanded enormously in this time, spreading along the mountainside and then out onto the northern fields. Its economy boomed, as did its political power. However, there was grumbling and discontent over the government structure, especially from the Guilds. In 1256, when Ahghairon died of old age, the Guildmasters launched a coup. They identified and killed the Secret Lords, though two – Baeron the woodworker and Shilarn the wizardess – survived and went to ground. The Council of Guildmasters ruled for six years before turning on one another, unleashing the Guild Wars in 1262. When the dust settled, the two surviving Guildmasters – Lhorar Gildeggh of the shipwrights and Ehlemm Zoar of the gemcutters – proclaimed themselves the Lords Magister.
The Magisters’ rule was unpopular. Lawlessness increased and Waterdeep’s reputation turned sour, with cities like Neverwinter and Baldur’s Gate benefiting from increase trade as merchants chose to avoid the chaotic city. The Shadow Thieves gained a toehold in the city at this time as well.
Baeron and Shilarn returned in 1273 and slew the Lords Magister. They refounded the Council of Lords, but enlarged it and recruited more widely from all ranks of the city. By 1276 the council had expanded to sixteen lords, with Baeron as the Open Lord. The city had also opened talks about a formal alliance with Tethyr, but the talks were constantly sabotaged with numerous deaths of Tethyrian nobles and even one king. A Waterdhavian noble was eventually found to blame and was executed.
The Lords of Waterdeep restored honour and integrity to the city, but rooting out the lawlessness took longer. Lhestyn, daughter of Baeron and Shilarn, infiltrated and destroyed the Shadow Thieves in 1298. Baeron died in 1308 and Lhestyn became Open Lord. She in turn died in 1314 and was succeeded by Piergeiron Paladinson, a young and intelligent officer of the City Watch. Piergeiron maintains his position to this day.
In 1306 the famed adventurer Durnan founded the inn known as the Yawning Portal in Waterdeep, sponsoring expeditions into Undermountain in search of treasure and ancient knowledge. In 1312 Durnan founded the Red Sashes as a vigilante group to keep peace and order in Waterdeep when the City Watch failed to do so.
In 1322, Khelben “Blackstaff” Arunsun became the Archmage of Waterdeep. A powerful wizard and known ally of Elminster, the Old Sage, Khelben would single-handedly save Waterdeep from magical plots many times over the next five decades, and commission adventurers to help defend the city many more times. In 1357 Khelben would rescue Laeral Silverhand of the Seven Sisters, who had been cursed to madness by a magical item known as the Crown of Horns. Laeral would take up residence in Blackstaff Tower, providing Waterdeep with a second mage of absolutely formidable power (adding to the dozens more of middling and impressive power residing in the city at any one time).
In 1358, Faerûn was struck by the Time of Troubles, when gods walked the Realms as mortal avatars. Waterdeep initially sat out the crisis, but as it approached its climax it became clear that Ao, Overgod of Realmspace, had established a Celestial Stairway atop Mount Waterdeep. Ao’s decree was that the Godswar would continue until the missing Tablets of Fate were returned to him. The adventurers Midnight, Kelemvor and Cyric recovered the Tablets of Fate and defeated the undead legions of the God of Death, Myrkul, who sought to stop them in Waterdeep (Bane, Bhaal and Myrkul had stolen the Tablets themselves, precipitating the crisis, and paid the price). The three companions succeeded, but Cyric betrayed his companions and (apparently) slew Kelemvor to seize one of the Tablets to present to Ao. Ao restored normality to the Realms, raising Cyric to godhood to replace Bane, Bhaal and Myrkul and Midnight to replace the slain Mystra.
The death of Myrkul – who fairly spectacularly exploded in the skies over Waterdeep – resulted in strange and bizarre happenings being reported in the city for some considerably time afterwards until his magical essence finally dissipated.
Shortly after the Time of Troubles ended, Khelben Arunsun hired an adventuring party to investigate rumours of a thieves’ guild operating in the sewers of Waterdeep. The party slew the beholder known as Xanathar, apparently ending the threat. However, within a few months the guild was operational again, with another beholder taking up the name of Xanathar.
The same adventurers were later dispatched to investigate the disappearance of one of Khelben’s agents as she investigated the mysterious Temple Darkmoon. The adventurers discovered a draconic priest raising an army in the temple and slew him, with Khelben later destroying all trace of the temple himself. In 1363 Waterdeep then allied with Daggerford to defeat an army of monsters out of Dragonspear Castle.
The discovery of the western continent of Maztica in 1360 sparked interest in Waterdeep. By 1365, Waterdhavian adventurers had established their own colony called New Waterdeep north of the native kingdom of Kultaka, with which it attempted to forge good ties. New Waterdeep proved successful enough to spawn a second colony, Trythosford, within a couple of years.
In 1368-69, Waterdeep lent military and supply support to Zaranda Rhindaun in her attempt to restore order to Tethyr. Her Reclamation War was successful. By the end of 1369, Waterdeep had established strong trade and political alliances with both Tethyr and Moonshae, following a state visit by Queen Alicia Kendrick.
Also in 1369, Waterdeep played a key role in the defeat of Iakhovas the Taker, after his war against the undersea nations of Faerûn had raged across the Inner Sea and then, via portal, into the Trackless Sea.
Waterdeep is ruled by a sixteen-member council known as the Lords of Waterdeep. The council, controversially, keeps all but one of its members a secret. The methods by which the Lords are chosen are unknown, but the Lords are believed to represent every social strata of the city, from nobles to commoners, usually with representation from the guilds, the City Watch, the clergy and the mages.
Since an attempted coup a century ago where the Lords were assassinated, the identities of the Lords are kept secret by magical means – notably the Lords’ Helms that all members wear in public which obscure their faces – and augmented by a bewildering array of rumours, misdirection and flat-out lies, to the point where each the number of rumoured lords outnumbers the actual council by at least ten-to-one at almost all times.
The remaining post on the council is made up of the Open Lord, whose identity is known publicly and who speaks on behalf of the council, negotiates with foreign emissaries and directs the defence of the city in times of trouble. The current Open Lord, Piergeiron Paladinson, a paladin of Tyr, is hugely respected for his political skill, military leadership and sense of civic duty.
In addition to the Lords of Waterdeep, the city Archmage commands tremendous respect and authority. The current Archmage, Khelben “Blackstaff” Arunsun, is one of the most famed mages in all of Faerûn. A close ally of the Harpers and the Old Sage, Elminster of Shadowdale, Khelben commands considerable power and even greater respect. He was widely-suspected to be one of the hidden Lords of the city, which he confirmed in 1367 and promptly resigned from the post.
Waterdeep has a strict code of laws, enforced by the well-organised City Watch and the judiciary, known as the Magisters. The Magisters dispense justice and can refer appeals directly to the Lords should it prove necessary.
Waterdeep’s extremely thorough law enforcement system means that the surface streets are largely clear of organised criminal activity. Such activity is restricted to Skullport, a subterranean city below Waterdeep Harbour. Skullport is technically a sovereign city-state so Waterdeep does not enforce its laws there. It’s also believed that the Lords think it may be useful to have Skullport as a “pressure valve” so villainy and criminal behaviour can find an outlet far from the streets of the city itself.
The closest to a criminal guild operating in Waterdeep is the rumoured Xanathar Thieves’ Guild, led by the beholder of the same name, which came to light in the late 1350s and was promptly destroyed by adventuring companies operating at the behest of the Open Lord. However, rumours persist that the guild has since reformed and continues to operate in the city’s sewers, with redoubts in nearby Undermountain where the City Watch does not operate.
Waterdeep’s direct writ extends directly to around 40 miles out from the city and indirectly out to around 100 miles. Most settlements within this area can expect a swift response if they call upon Waterdeep for aid. Around 130,000 people in Waterdeep directly, but around ten times as many live within the authority and area of protection for the city, exceeding many entire “proper” nations in population.
Waterdeep is the central trade hub for the entire north-western quadrant of Faerûn. The city is the natural outflow for goods from across the North and the Western Heartlands, despite competition from Luskan and Neverwinter to the north and Orlumbor and Baldur’s Gate to the south. Cities and towns far inland, up the Dessarin-Surbrin-Rauvin river network, can ship their goods to Waterdeep by river at speed and from there to markets along the Trackless Sea and Sea of Swords, and even down into the Shining Sea. If something cannot be bought in Waterdeep, it may not be possible to buy it anywhere in the Realms.
The city is defended by two military forces: the City Guard is the city’s standing military force and holds the walls and patrols the surrounding countryside. The Griffon Cavalry patrols the city’s skies and undertakes long-range reconnaissance and scouting to prevent sneak attacks on the city. Allied merfolk and sea elf forces patrol the bottom of Deepwater Harbour to prevent a sneak attack by sea.
The City Watch is the local police force and operates mainly within the city walls, keeping a lid on crime, investigating murders and ejecting troublemakers from the city’s many inns and festhalls.
For more clandestine operations, Waterdeep is rumoured to operate Force Grey, a deniable intelligence agency which specialises in eliminating problems behind the scenes before they become pressing. Waterdeep is also the base of operations for at least a dozen adventuring and mercenary companies of repute, including the Dawnbringer Company, the Company of Crazed Venturers, the Defenders Three and the Heroes of Waterdeep. Waterdeep is also home to more retired adventurers, powerful mages and high clerics per square mile than almost anywhere else on the continent, most of whom would happily turn out to defend their home. The city can also call upon extremely powerful allies from across the Realms, most of whom could teleport to the city in an instant. Several gods also take a direct interest in the welfare of the City of Splendours, most notably Mystra, the Goddess of Magic who ascended to godhood from the top of Mount Waterdeep just thirteen years ago, and Siamorphe, the closest thing the city has to a local, patron goddess.
Despite this formidable array of defences, various hostile forces have tested the city over the years. Most formidable of these was Myrkul, the God of Death, himself, who assaulted the city with an army of undead at the culmination of the Time of Troubles. This did not end well for him, with the ashes of the deity being cleaned off the streets for some time after the battle.
In terms of faith, Waterdeep is the most cosmopolitan city in the Realms. Oghma, Tyr, Tempus, Gond, Selûne, Mystra, Silvanus, Mielikki, Lathander, Sune, Tymora and the gnomish deity Baravar Cloakshadow all have temples in the city. Chauntea, Lliira, Sharess and Siamorphe also have shrines and minor holy houses dedicated to them. There is also a large non-denominational temple called the Plinth, which open for the use of all faiths.
Worship of the dark gods is unpopular and discouraged in the city, although Shar, Auril and Umberlee have shrines in or near the city. The clergy of Cyric practice clandestine pilgrimages to Waterdeep, as their deity ascended to godhood from atop Mount Waterdeep at the end of the Time of Troubles, along with Mystra.
The worship of Eilistraee and Valkur is also gaining ground in the City of Splendours, though as yet they do not have formal sites of worship.
Waterdeep was also the home of the Cult of Ao, which formed after the Time of Troubles and saw people worshiping the enigmatic “Overgod” of Realmspace directly. Ao did not respond to any of their prayers or supplications and after a while the cult disbanded due to lack of interest.
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